本篇文章主要为大家详细介绍了Python外星人入侵游戏编程完整的实现思路,文中示例代码介绍的非常详细,具有一定的参考价值 ,感兴趣的小伙伴们可以参考一下 PYTHON游戏编程外星人入侵的完整实现思路,具体内容如下

本篇文章主要为大家详细介绍了Python外星人入侵游戏编程完整的实现思路,文中示例代码介绍的非常详细 ,具有一定的参考价值,感兴趣的小伙伴们可以参考一下

PYTHON游戏编程外星人入侵的完整实现思路,具体内容如下

准备工作

下载python ,比如Anaconda3(64 bit),导入pygame游戏包

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1.外星人设置,alien.py ,代码:

(PS:下面便是源码,需要源码和素材的童鞋可以点击下载即可下载)

import pygame from pygame.sprite import Sprite class Alien(Sprite): """表示单个外星人的类""" def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen): """初始化外星人并设置其他位置""" super(Alien,self).__init__() self.screen = screen self.ai_settings = ai_settings #加载外星人图像,并设置其rect属性 self.image = pygame.image.load('images/alien.bmp') self.rect = self.image.get_rect() #每个外星人最初都在屏幕左上角附近 self.rect.x = self.rect.width self.rect.y = self.rect.height #存储外星人的准确位置 self.x = float(self.rect.x) def blitme(self): """在指定位置绘制外星人""" self.screen.blit(self.image,self.rect) def check_edges(self): """如果外星人位于屏幕边缘 ,就返回True""" screen_rect = self.screen.get_rect() if self.rect.right >= screen_rect.right: return True elif self.rect.left <= 0: return True def update(self): """向右移动外星人""" self.x += (self.ai_settings.alien_speed_factor * self.ai_settings.fleet_direction) self.rect.x = self.x

2.游戏主程序 ,alien_invasion.py,代码:

import pygame from settings import Settings from game_stats import GameStats from button import Button from ship import Ship from pygame.sprite import Group import game_functions as gf from scoreboard import Scoreboard def run_game(): pygame.init() # 初始化背景设置 ai_settings = Settings() # 全局设置 screen = pygame.display.set_mode( # 创建screen显示窗口 (ai_settings.screen_width,ai_settings.screen_height) ) pygame.display.set_caption('Alien Invasion') # 标题 #新建Play按钮 play_button = Button(ai_settings,screen,"Play") #创建一个用于存储游戏统计信息的实例,并创建记分牌 stats = GameStats(ai_settings) sb = Scoreboard(ai_settings, screen, stats) # 创建飞船 ship = Ship(ai_settings,screen) # 创建子弹编组 bullets = Group() #创建一个外星人 aliens = Group() #创建外星人群 gf.create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens) # 开始游戏主循环 while True: # 监视键盘和鼠标事件 gf.check_events(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets) if stats.game_active: # 移动飞船 gf.update_ship(ship) # 更新子弹位置 gf.update_bullets(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets) #更新外星人 gf.update_aliens(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets) # 更新屏幕 gf.update_screen(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets,play_button) run_game()

3.设置子弹,bullet.py ,代码:

import pygame from pygame.sprite import Sprite import time class Bullet(Sprite): '''飞船子弹进行管理''' def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen,ship): super(Bullet,self).__init__() self.screen = screen # 创建子弹矩形初始位置(0,0,3,15)分别对应lef,top,宽 ,高 self.rect = pygame.Rect(0,0, ai_settings.bullet_width, ai_settings.bullet_height) self.rect.centerx = ship.rect.centerx # 设置中心点x轴坐标跟飞船一致 self.rect.top = ship.rect.top # 设置y轴坐标顶部跟飞船一致 # 设置成小数进行计算 self.top = float(self.rect.top) self.color = ai_settings.bullet_color self.speed_factor = ai_settings.bullet_speed_factor def update(self): self.top -=self.speed_factor self.rect.top = self.top print(self.rect.top) def draw_bullet(self): pygame.draw.rect(self.screen,self.color,self.rect)

4.设置Play按钮,button.py,代码:

import pygame.font class Button(): def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen,msg): """初始化按钮属性""" self.screen = screen self.screen_rect = screen.get_rect() #设置按钮的尺寸和其他属性 self.width,self.height = 200,50 self.button_color = (0,255,0) self.text_color = (255,255,255) self.font = pygame.font.SysFont(None,48) #创建按钮的rect对象 ,并使其居中 self.rect = pygame.Rect(0,0,self.width,self.height) self.rect.center = self.screen_rect.center #按钮的标签只需创建一次 self.prep_msg(msg) def prep_msg(self,msg): """将msg渲染为图像,并使其在按钮上居中""" self.msg_image = self.font.render(msg,True,self.text_color,self.button_color) self.msg_image_rect = self.msg_image.get_rect() self.msg_image_rect.center =self.rect.center def draw_button(self): #绘制一个用颜色填充的按钮,再绘制文本 self.screen.fill(self.button_color,self.rect) self.screen.blit(self.msg_image,self.msg_image_rect)

5.设置游戏功能 ,game_functions.py,代码:

import sys import pygame from bullet import Bullet from alien import Alien from time import sleep def check_events(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets): # 监视键盘和鼠标事件 for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.QUIT: # 关闭窗口退出 sys.exit() elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN: check_keydown_events(event,ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets) elif event.type == pygame.KEYUP: check_keyup_events(event,ship) elif event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN: mouse_x, mouse_y = pygame.mouse.get_pos() check_play_button(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets,mouse_x, mouse_y) def check_play_button(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets,mouse_x, mouse_y): """在玩家单击Play按钮时开始游戏""" button_clicked = play_button.rect.collidepoint(mouse_x,mouse_y) if button_clicked and not stats.game_active: #重置游戏设置 ai_settings.initialize_dynamic_settings() #隐藏光标 pygame.mouse.set_visible(False) #重置游戏统计信息 stats.reset_stats() stats.game_active = True #重置计分牌图像 sb.prep_score() sb.prep_high_score() sb.prep_level() sb.prep_ships() #清空外星人列表和子弹列表 aliens.empty() bullets.empty() #创建一群新的外星人,并让飞船居中 create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens) ship.center_ship() def update_screen(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets,play_button): '''更新屏幕上的图片 ,并切换到新屏幕''' screen.fill(ai_settings.bg_color) # 设置背景颜色 ship.blitme() # 绘制飞船 aliens.draw(screen) # 循环子弹组里面的元素 ,进行绘制 为空时不执行 for bullet in bullets.sprites(): bullet.draw_bullet() # 绘制子弹 #显示得分 sb.show_score() #如果游戏处于非活跃状态,就显示Play按钮 if not stats.game_active: play_button.draw_button() # 显示最新屏幕,擦拭旧屏幕 pygame.display.flip() # print('1') def check_keydown_events(event,ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets): if event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT: ship.moving_right = True elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT: ship.moving_left = True elif event.key == pygame.K_SPACE: fire_bullet(ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets) elif event.key == pygame.K_q: sys.exit() def check_keyup_events(event,ship): if event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT: ship.moving_right = False elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT: ship.moving_left = False def update_bullets(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets): '''更新子弹位置 ,删除子弹''' bullets.update() # 子弹组每个成员执行self.update()操作 for bullet in bullets.sprites(): if bullet.rect.bottom <= 0: # 子弹出界 删除 bullets.remove(bullet) check_bullet_alien_collisions(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets) def check_bullet_alien_collisions(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets): """响应外星人和子弹的碰撞""" #删除发生碰撞的子弹和外星人 collisions = pygame.sprite.groupcollide(bullets,aliens,True,True) if collisions: for aliens in collisions.values(): stats.score += ai_settings.alien_points * len(aliens) sb.prep_score() check_high_score(stats,sb) if len(aliens)==0: #删除现有的子弹并新建一群外星人,加快游戏进度节奏 bullets.empty() ai_settings.increase_speed() #提高等级 stats.level += 1 sb.prep_level() create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens) def update_ship(ship): ship.update() def fire_bullet(ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets): # 创建一个子弹对象 加入到子弹组 if len(bullets) < ai_settings.bullets_allowed: # 子弹少于允许值时再生成 new_bullet = Bullet(ai_settings, screen, ship) bullets.add(new_bullet) def get_number_aliens_x(ai_settings,alien_width): """计算每行可容纳多少个外星人""" available_space_x = ai_settings.screen_width - 2 * alien_width number_aliens_x = int(available_space_x / (2 * alien_width)) return number_aliens_x def get_number_rows(ai_settings,ship_height,alien_height): """计算屏幕可容纳多少行外星人""" available_space_y = (ai_settings.screen_height - (3 * alien_height) - ship_height) number_rows = int(available_space_y / (2 * alien_height)) return number_rows def create_aliens(ai_settings,screen,aliens,alien_number,row_number): """创建一个外星人并将其放在当期行""" alien = Alien(ai_settings,screen) alien_width = alien.rect.width alien.x = alien_width + 2 * alien_width * alien_number alien.rect.x = alien.x alien.rect.y = alien.rect.height + 2 * alien.rect.height * row_number aliens.add(alien) def create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens): """创建外星人群""" #创建一个外星人,并计算一行可以容纳多少个外星人 #外星人间距为外星人宽度 alien = Alien(ai_settings,screen) number_aliens_x = get_number_aliens_x(ai_settings,alien.rect.width) number_rows = get_number_rows(ai_settings,ship.rect.height,alien.rect.height) #创建第一行外星人 for row_number in range(number_rows): for alien_number in range(number_aliens_x): #创建一个外星人并将其加入当前行 create_aliens(ai_settings,screen,aliens,alien_number,row_number) def check_fleet_edges(ai_settings,aliens): """有外星人到达边缘时采取相应措施""" for alien in aliens.sprites(): if alien.check_edges(): change_fleet_direction(ai_settings,aliens) break def change_fleet_direction(ai_settings,aliens): """将整群外星人下移,并改变他们的运动方向""" for alien in aliens.sprites(): alien.rect.y += ai_settings.fleet_drop_speed ai_settings.fleet_direction *= -1 def ship_hit(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets): """响应被外星人撞到的飞船""" if stats.ships_left > 0: #将ship_left减1 stats.ships_left -= 1 #更新记分牌 sb.prep_ships() #清空外星人列表和子弹列表 aliens.empty() bullets.empty() #创建一群新的外星人 ,并将飞船放到屏幕低端中央 create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens) ship.center_ship() #暂停 sleep(0.5) else: stats.game_active = False pygame.mouse.set_visible(True) def check_aliens_bottom(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets): """检查是否有外星人到达屏幕低端""" screen_rect = screen.get_rect() for alien in aliens.sprites(): if alien.rect.bottom >= screen_rect.bottom: #像飞船被撞到一样进行处理 ship_hit(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets) break def update_aliens(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets): """更新外星人群中所有外星人的位置""" check_fleet_edges(ai_settings,aliens) aliens.update() #检测外星人和飞船之间的碰撞 if pygame.sprite.spritecollideany(ship,aliens): ship_hit(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets) #检查是否有外星人到达屏幕低端 check_aliens_bottom(ai_settings,stats,screen,sb,ship,aliens,bullets) def check_high_score(stats,sb): """检查是否诞生了新的最高纪录""" if stats.score > stats.high_score: stats.high_score = stats.score sb.prep_high_score()

6.游戏统计信息,game_stats.py,代码:

class GameStats(): """跟踪游戏的统计信息""" def __init__(self,ai_settings): """初始化统计信息""" self.ai_settings = ai_settings self.reset_stats() #游戏刚启动时处于非活动状态 self.game_active = False #在任何情况下不应该重置最高分 self.high_score = 0 self.level = 1 def reset_stats(self): """初始化在游戏运行期间可能变化的统计信息""" self.ships_left = self.ai_settings.ship_limit self.score = 0

7.分数设置 ,scoreboard.py,代码:

import pygame.font from pygame.sprite import Group from ship import Ship class Scoreboard(): """显示得分信息的类""" def __init__(self, ai_settings, screen, stats): """初始化显示得分涉及的属性""" self.screen =screen self.screen_rect = screen.get_rect() self.ai_settings = ai_settings self.stats = stats #显示得分信息时使用的字体设置 self.text_color = (30, 30, 30) self.font = pygame.font.SysFont(None, 48) #准备初始化得分图像和当前最高分数 self.prep_score() self.prep_high_score() self.prep_level() self.prep_ships() def prep_score(self): """将得分转换为一幅渲染的图像""" rounded_score = int(round(self.stats.score, -1)) score_str = "{:,}".format(rounded_score) self.score_image = self.font.render(score_str, True, self.text_color, self.ai_settings.bg_color) #将得分放在右上角 self.score_rect = self.score_image.get_rect() self.score_rect.right = self.screen_rect.right - 20 self.score_rect.top = 5 def prep_high_score(self): """将最高得分转换为渲染图像""" high_score = int(round(self.stats.high_score, -1)) high_score_str = "{:,}".format(high_score) self.high_score_image = self.font.render(high_score_str, True, self.text_color, self.ai_settings.bg_color) #将最高分放在屏幕最中央 self.high_score_rect = self.high_score_image.get_rect() self.high_score_rect.centerx = self.screen_rect.centerx self.high_score_rect.top = 5 def prep_level(self): """将等级转换为渲染图像""" self.level_image = self.font.render(str(self.stats.level), True, self.text_color, self.ai_settings.bg_color) #将得分放在右上角 self.level_rect = self.score_image.get_rect() self.level_rect.right = self.screen_rect.right self.level_rect.top = self.score_rect.bottom def prep_ships(self): """显示还剩下多少艘飞船""" self.ships = Group() for ship_number in range(self.stats.ships_left): ship = Ship(self.ai_settings, self.screen) ship.rect.x = 10 + ship_number * ship.rect.width ship.rect.y = 10 self.ships.add(ship) def show_score(self): """在屏幕上显示得分和等级""" self.screen.blit(self.score_image, self.score_rect) self.screen.blit(self.high_score_image, self.high_score_rect) self.screen.blit(self.level_image, self.level_rect) #绘制飞船 self.ships.draw(self.screen)

8.设置,settings.py ,代码:

class Settings(): '''存储外星人入侵中所有的设置''' def __init__(self): '''初始化设置''' #屏幕设置 self.screen_width = 1200 self.screen_height = 600 self.bg_color = (230,230,230) # 设置背景色 灰色 #飞船设置 self.ship_limit = 3 self.ship_image_path = 'images/ship.bmp' # 飞船图片路径 #子弹设置 self.bullet_width = 3 self.bullet_height = 15 self.bullet_color = 60,60,60 self.bullets_allowed = 3 # 允许屏幕中出现子弹的数量 #外星人设置 self.fleet_drop_speed = 10 #以什么样的速度加快游戏节奏 self.speedup_scale = 1.1 #外星人点数提高速度 self.score_scale = 1.5 self.initialize_dynamic_settings() def initialize_dynamic_settings(self): """初始化随游戏进行而变化的设置""" self.ship_speed_factor = 1.5 self.bullet_speed_factor = 3 self.alien_speed_factor = 1 #fleet_direction为1表示向右移,为-1表示向左移 self.fleet_direction = 1 #计分 self.alien_points = 50 def increase_speed(self): """提高速度设置,外星人点数""" self.ship_speed_factor *= self.speedup_scale self.bullet_speed_factor *= self.speedup_scale self.alien_speed_factor *= self.speedup_scale self.alien_points = int(self.alien_points * self.score_scale) print(self.alien_points)

9.飞船设置,ship.py ,代码:

import pygame from pygame.sprite import Sprite class Ship(Sprite): '''飞船所有信息''' def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen): """初始化飞船 ,并设置其起始位置""" super(Ship,self).__init__() self.screen=screen self.ai_settings = ai_settings # 加载飞船图片、获取外接矩形 self.image = pygame.image.load(self.ai_settings.ship_image_path) # 加载图片 self.image = pygame.transform.smoothscale(self.image,(40,60)) self.rect = self.image.get_rect() # 获取图片外接矩形 self.screen_rect = screen.get_rect() #获取屏幕外接矩形 # 将每搜新飞船放到并木底部中心 self.rect.centerx = self.screen_rect.centerx self.rect.bottom = self.screen_rect.bottom # 设置成浮点类型 self.center = float(self.rect.centerx) # self.rect.centerx设置不了浮点数 只能另设置一个变量进行运算 # 移动标志 self.moving_right = False self.moving_left = False def blitme(self): '''在指定位置绘制飞船''' self.screen.blit(self.image,self.rect) def update(self): # 向右移动飞船 if self.moving_right and self.rect.right < self.screen_rect.right: self.center +=self.ai_settings.ship_speed_factor # 向左移动飞船 if self.moving_left and self.rect.left > self.screen_rect.left: self.center -= self.ai_settings.ship_speed_factor self.rect.centerx = self.center def center_ship(self): """让飞船在屏幕上居中""" self.center = self.screen_rect.centerx

效果展示:

 

 游戏资源:图片资源

 

 

结尾

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